Our Slimy Salamanders

by Josh Palumbo, Forest Management Coordinator

I welcome you to The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s attempt to bring some nature and knowledge into your home. The Nine Minute Naturalist borrows from NPR’s lovely 90-Second Naturalist podcast. Since we all have a bit more time on our hands, the goal is to take something that is happening out in our environment and stimulate your brain for roughly nine minutes. Don’t let something as “minor” as a quarantine to keep you from learning. I hope you enjoy!


Autumn is not the time most outdoor enthusiasts dwell on the creatures of the reptile and amphibian families. Snakes are headed to their winter den sites, frogs are contemplating burial at the bottom of a pond and box turtles are seeking out the perfect log in which to hibernate. One amphibian maintains a relatively active lifecycle in the fall, the salamander. This issue of the Nine Minute Naturalist will feature a few of the salamanders you can still find cruising the landscape long into the fall.

Cooler temperatures are upon us and the signs of preparation for the winter season are all around, but the salamander is still in his comfort zone. Salamanders tend to prefer cooler, damper conditions than most reptiles and amphibians. In the spring, at the first hints of warmer days, salamanders can be seen racing towards their reproduction grounds, moving well before you would think of seeing cold-blooded creatures. Their love for this weather is just as verifiable in the fall as they are moving towards their winter abodes and feeding in preparation for the long winter rest. Some salamanders, such as the marbled salamander, breed and lay eggs in fall. Wintergreen is laden with great locations to find salamanders. The Shamokin Springs Nature Preserve, Fortunes Ridge Trail, and large portions of the Old Appalachian Trail have the perfect combination of moisture and terrain to host a wide variety of species.

 

Red-backed salamander

 

One of the more common salamanders found at Wintergreen is the eastern red-backed salamander. This salamander is common throughout most of Virginia and prefers to live in the leaf litter of an eastern hardwood forest. They can commonly be found in rock crevices and in rotting logs. They are a top end predator of invertebrates in the detritus food chain such as earthworms, ants, beetles, centipedes and millipedes. Despite the name “red-backed”, this salamander can be found in all black form or with a yellowish stripe down the back instead of the usual red stripe.

 

Red-spotted newt

 

Another salamander routinely seen at Wintergreen is the red-spotted newt. This salamander has a very unique life cycle. They have an egg, larval, adult, and terrestrial eft life stage. The eggs hatch in the water and the larvae stay in the water for 2-3 months. They then metamorphize into the red eft, which is the most commonly seen stage. The terrestrial red eft lives in the woodland environment moving about searching for prey on rainy or humid days and nights. They stay in the eft stage approximately 4 years after which time they change into the adult stage and return to the aquatic life in the water. This stage is the genesis of their name due to their green bodies and red spots.

 

White-spotted slimy salamander

 

A few more easily found species at Wintergreen are the northern dusky, the southern two-lined, and the white-spotted slimy salamander. The northern dusky is commonly found within a few feet of a stream. Its coloration is brown with muddled black spots along the back. The southern two-lined salamander is known by the two black lines going down the length of the back. This species is semi-aquatic and can be found in numerous environments near water. The white-spotted slimy is one of the biggest salamanders at Wintergreen reaching up to 7 inches in length and are black with white spots all over the body. They are found in the moist leaf layers of the upland oak-hickory forests.

When going through your mental checklists of cool autumnal happenings in the forest of Wintergreen, don’t forget about the movements of our slimy friends. As you walk along the trails on a wet fall day keep your eyes peeled for the fall-loving salamanders of Wintergreen.

Fall Foliage

by Josh Palumbo, Forest Management Coordinator

I welcome you to The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s attempt to bring some nature and knowledge into your home. The Nine Minute Naturalist borrows from NPR’s lovely 90-Second Naturalist podcast. Since we all have a bit more time on our hands, the goal is to take something that is happening out in our environment and stimulate your brain for roughly nine minutes. Don’t let something as “minor” as a quarantine to keep you from learning. I hope you enjoy!


As summer draws to an end, nature is barraging us with signs of the changing season. Goldenrods in full bloom, wooly bear caterpillars marching, and swallows flocking in mass are a few of the tell-tale signs that fall is upon us. The more obvious but equally exciting signs of autumn are the crisp cool mornings and seeing the first colorful leaves on the forest floor. This edition of the Nine Minute Naturalist will break down the Wintergreen fall foliage.

The primary trigger for the signs of autumn we see around us is photoperiod, which is the duration of an organism’s daily exposure to light. This along with fluctuation in local weather patterns will determine when chlorophyll production ceases in plants. When chlorophyll begins to break down, the green color disappears giving rise to our beloved red, yellow, and orange colors we see in our fall foliage. The Wintergreen forest offers some of the most striking color spectrums in the mid-Atlantic region due to our great diversity of trees.

 

 

My favorite color to appear in our forest is the deep reds common amongst the black gum, sassafras and red maple. These brilliant foliage producers tend to change early in the season to make for stark contrast amongst the still green oaks and hickories. The reds and purples produced by these species and others, such as dogwood, are a result of a pigment called anthocyanin. They are most vivid after weather periods with warm, sunny days and below 45-degree nights. Unlike chlorophyll, anthocyanins are not always present in a leaf but are produced in late summer when other environmental changes begin occurring.

 

 

The yellow, orange and brown colors come from pigments called carotenoids. This color is most common among our hickories, birch, and maples. The oak trees stay green the longest and turn mostly brown late into the season. When carotenoids combine with anthocyanin, they produce a fiery red, orange or bronze color seen among sumacs and sugar maples. All the colors seen across our landscape are due to the mixing of pigments with varying amounts of chlorophyll still present in the leaf.

Weather greatly affects the intensity of color each autumn. Low temperatures above freeze produce brilliant reds while early freezing temperatures reduce the red color. Rainy weather tends to increase fall color. Stress factors such as drought, disease or insects may cause fall color to come on early but with less coloration. An abrupt hard freeze can cause leaves to drop prematurely as well.

This is the best time of the year to be traversing the wilds of Wintergreen. For a short period of time we get to enjoy perfect hiking weather amongst our changing leaves. Get out onto a trail today to enjoy the uniqueness our mountain has to offer.

 

Wily Coyote

by Josh Palumbo, Forest Management Coordinator

I welcome you to The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s attempt to bring some nature and knowledge into your home. The Nine Minute Naturalist borrows from NPR’s lovely 90-Second Naturalist podcast. Since we all have a bit more time on our hands, the goal is to take something that is happening out in our environment and stimulate your brain for roughly nine minutes. Don’t let something as “minor” as a quarantine to keep you from learning. I hope you enjoy!


Wintergreen offers spectacular animal sighting opportunities ranging from hordes of chipmunks to the sometimes-lovable black bear meandering through the woods. One rare sighting that has become a bit more common recently is the coyote. While not a native resident, this close relative to the domestic dog shows up on trail cameras with great frequency and can be heard yipping and howling around dusk and into the evening throughout the Wintergreen terrain. This episode of the Nine Minute Naturalist will focus on the wily coyote.

 

 

Native west of the Mississippi, coyotes arrived in Virginia two ways: natural migration and releases by fox hunters. The first report of free ranging coyotes in Virginia was in 1952 in the Burkes Garden area of Tazewell County. There are numerous reports of coyotes being imported into the state during the 1950s and 60s. In some cases, coyote pups were inadvertently mixed in with fox pups that were imported for fox hunting purposes. During this period, coyotes were expanding their natural range eastward and now populate every county including the Delmarva Peninsula and one of the Barrier Islands.

Coyotes are true omnivores, consuming everything from small mammals to fruit, berries and vegetables (they show a fondness for gourd vegetables) to carrion (dead animal matter). This predator is especially lethal to rabbits, groundhogs, chipmunks, mice and squirrels. Coyotes are also known to be predators of deer. In some cases, this is a good thing since deer have few natural predators beside humans. In other cases, many hunters see the coyote as a decimator of deer population. The Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources stance on the coyote/deer relationship is that they have little affect on the overall population as a whole but can be a problem in some specific areas with more closed forest environments such as the western portion of Virginia with large tracts of National Forest.

 

 

At the request of farmers, ranchers, and hunters, several counties in Virginia have instituted a futile bounty system to control population numbers. Bounties have proven ineffective primarily due to their density dependent reproduction. If the numbers decline, they have the ability to ramp up their reproduction. To understand their ability to adapt, an understanding of their life history is essential. Coyote females, which can breed after their first year, can produce between 2-12 pups per litter. This depends on food availability, overall health and population numbers. This means that if the population numbers are low, the females will have more pups and if the numbers are high, they will produce fewer young. This amazing ability to control their reproductive rates explains why coyotes have proved impossible to eradicate once they have arrived in an area.

One of the best ways to be aware of the presence of coyote is to listen carefully especially close to dusk. The coyote is one of the most vocal of our woodland mammals. They are loud and have a great diversity of language. Their howl, unlike the drawn-out wolf howl, consists of a series of high pitch barks and yips. A few coyotes can sound like quite a pack by combining wavering howls with rapid change of pitch that bounce off trees and rocks to make a pack of three dogs sound like ten.

Despite being a newcomer to the state, the wily coyote is here to stay. Embrace our newest neighbor by keeping a watchful eye and tuning in to hear the language of this especially vocal mammal as you spend time in the Wintergreen wilderness.

 

Be Careful What You Ask For

by Josh Palumbo, Forest Management Coordinator

I welcome you to The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s attempt to bring some nature and knowledge into your home. The Nine Minute Naturalist borrows from NPR’s lovely 90-Second Naturalist podcast. Since we all have a bit more time on our hands, the goal is to take something that is happening out in our environment and stimulate your brain for roughly nine minutes. Don’t let something as “minor” as a quarantine to keep you from learning. I hope you enjoy!


Across the nation, parks, trails, camp grounds and other outdoor recreation destinations are under unprecedented pressure. Restrictions to normal everyday activities has pushed people to use the resources we have always wanted them to utilize. This edition of the Nine Minute Naturalist will veer towards the philosophical as we discuss the problems associated with getting what we have always desired…for people to truly value and appreciate everything the great outdoors has to offer.

As an organization built upon conservation and education, The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen seeks to get people out into nature and build a mass that understands and appreciates the uniqueness of Wintergreen and the Blue Ridge Mountains. We lead weekly hikes, education programs in schools, and conduct research throughout the year in order to bring knowledge and awareness of the natural world. Yet in a time of shutdowns and restrictions, masses have come to see outdoor recreation as a key new component to their daily lives. The trails at Wintergreen have absolutely proven to be one of the most valuable resources available to guests and property owners. This newfound interest in our resources is what we have been trying to sell from the beginning…that Wintergreen’s greatest asset is the environment. That brings us to the question of how to manage the resources properly now that we have received all we could have asked for and more.

The positive news is that we have a great resource of past trail studies to be able to identify problem areas and where to allocate time and resources. In 2016-17, TNFW summer interns studied trail use across Wintergreen to figure out how and when our trails were used. This study has been used to compare that year-long period to numbers we are seeing now. Although much less time has been spent on trail counts this summer, the numbers indicate a 2x to 10x increase in usage along our trail system. For instance, the Shamokin Springs Nature Preserve averaged 60 users per week in 2016-17. More than 60 users were recorded in one weekend day this year. At Paul’s Creek Trail, it has become commonplace to count 6-10 cars in the cul-de-sac any day from 10am-4pm. Another study was done this summer to get a baseline for trail depreciation that can be replicated any given time to measure the impact of human use on the trails. The findings were predictable but enlightening at the same time. Our trails of greatest depreciation are the trails of greatest use – Paul’s Creek, Upper Shamokin Falls, and Highlands Leisure Trail. This study will offer a baseline for how to interpret impacts on the Wintergreen trails for years to come.

I don’t pretend to have an answer for the questions brought about by the surge in use on the resources at Wintergreen. I do know that I love the fact people desire to get into the environment and have come to appreciate our many resources. I also know that TNFW is ready to conserve and protect the resources to the best of our ability.

Flying Phenomena

by Josh Palumbo, Forest Management Coordinator

I welcome you to The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s attempt to bring some nature and knowledge into your home. The Nine Minute Naturalist borrows from NPR’s lovely 90-Second Naturalist podcast. Since we all have a bit more time on our hands, the goal is to take something that is happening out in our environment and stimulate your brain for roughly nine minutes. Don’t let something as “minor” as a quarantine to keep you from learning. I hope you enjoy!


While summer continues until September 22nd, the hints of the coming cold weather are all around us. The current sign nature is giving us is the raptor migration. At some unknown point in August, certain species of raptors find it appropriate to begin their long journey to warmer winter grounds. This segment of the Nine Minute Naturalist will discuss the raptor migration phenomena signaling the coming fall season.

Raptor migration in the eastern United States begins in late July through January but peaks from early September to November. Decreasing day length triggers “zuganrhue” or migratory restlessness. Seasonal timing varies by species. Early migrants are broad-winged hawks, osprey, bald eagles and kestrels. Mid-fall migrants are sharp-shinned and Cooper’s hawks. Our late season raptor migrants feature red-tailed and red-shouldered hawks. The timing of their southern journey is also caused by weather such as a strong cold front passing through.

The Blue Ridge Mountains are a key travel route for raptors leading to their wintering grounds. The key feature mountains offer is updraft. Raptors have perfected the art of soaring. Eagles, buteos (red-tailed, red-shouldered, broad-winged hawks) and vultures use soaring to travel 250-300 miles per day. These species prefer to use the updraft and thermal currents created by our mountains to fly in the most efficient manner possible. While they are efficient, these soaring species will travel a longer route. Birds such as osprey, falcons and harriers use more of a flapping technique. While more inefficient, they can utilize a much more direct routes across land or water.

While raptors are usually solitary creatures, migration causes flocking for some species. The most obvious example of this is the broad-winged hawk. This species forms flocks of migrants called kettles. When air currents are at their best, thousands of broad-winged hawks pass by the Rockfish Gap Hawk Watch location. Over the past decade, the peak migration day corresponds with the apex of the broad-winged hawk movements south. Three different days over the past decade saw over 10,000 broad-winged hawks migrate past. The highest total occurred September 17, 2019 when 10,643 broad-winged hawks flew past the bird counters. Over that time period, the highest number of birds were seen from September 17-26th. It is a marvel to see what appears as a coordinated movement of birds wheeling and circling into the sky upon the rising thermal winds.

The best way to view the raptor migration is from a vantage that covers both sides of the Blue Ridge. We are lucky enough to have multiple options in our immediate area. Humpback Rocks and Spy Rock offer viewsheds that meet that parameter. Time your arrival to these locations so that you get to watch for birds through the late morning and early afternoon. Thermals are caused when the sun differentially heats the earths surface. When the thermals begin you will see birds begin their wheeling ascent before they get to the right elevation to soar south. The official count is kept at the Rockfish Gap and is tallied daily from August 15th to the end of November. Visit this website to get a detailed account of the happenings at Rockfish Gap. This site has not only current sightings but decades of old data to peruse at your leisure.

The times are changing and for evidence look to the sky. Any overlook at Wintergreen or in our surrounding area will suffice to witness this event. Make sure you bring your binoculars and some patience to take in this yearly phenomenon.

 

Redtail

 

Kettle

From the Director

 

While The Nature Foundation’s doors remain closed to the public, many of our programs are alive and well. Some are virtual and others are live as we learn to live with the new normal and social distancing.

 

  • Guided hikes and outdoor programs are happening with limited numbers and masked participants. Our hiking guides are available in The Mountain Inn as well as the Blackrock Market. The Shoppe is executing some online sales and by appointment visits.

 

  • Our greenhouse has never been busier. We have over 1,500 mature native shrubs and a good assortment of wildflowers. The facility is usually open on Thursdays and Fridays from 9:30am till 4:30 pm. It’s always best to visit the website to select what you want and let us know from the contact information listed.

 

 

  • In October, we will host our first ever virtual Wildflower Symposium with a focus on all aspects of Natural History. Those who participate will also be supporting The Nature Foundation’s efforts at bringing the virtual learning experience to teachers and students in Nelson County’s Schools. Our instructors will design field trip videos and lectures that can be used to provide new information that students will not find in most current textbooks.

 

Our programs continue to evolve in the “new normal” as we continue to provide the science that enables the protection of Wintergreen and surrounding ecosystems, share our knowledge, and communicate by phone, zoom and email. We look forward to when we can see everyone in Trillium House but until then, enjoy the “nature of Wintergreen” with us. Immerse yourself in our hiking trails as you celebrate the beauty of an early fall season.

 

Doug Coleman
Biologist/Executive Director
The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen

Much Ado About Nothing

by Josh Palumbo, Forest Management Coordinator

I welcome you to The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s attempt to bring some nature and knowledge into your home. The Nine Minute Naturalist borrows from NPR’s lovely 90-Second Naturalist podcast. Since we all have a bit more time on our hands, the goal is to take something that is happening out in our environment and stimulate your brain for roughly nine minutes. Don’t let something as “minor” as a quarantine to keep you from learning. I hope you enjoy!


The sight of an extensive web formed at the end of tree branch resulting in leaf defoliation is a cause of quite the commotion. This commotion is absolutely justifiable at certain times of the year. In the case of fall webworm, the commotion is much ado about nothing. This installment of the Nine Minute Naturalist will give an in depth look at this unsightly pest.

The fall webworm is native to Virginia and most of the United States. It will feed on over 100 tree species but is seen most often at Wintergreen on hickories, oaks and ash. This species tends to become a focal point of the forest landscape in late July through August. The eggs laid May to July hatch and the caterpillar immediately begins constructing a web around the terminal end of a branch, making it especially conspicuous. The caterpillar is identified by it’s white to pale yellow color with two lines of black dots down the back. As the caterpillar grows, the webs enlarge encircling more of the branch. The leaves are stripped except the midrib and larger veins in the leaf.

After reading this description of unsightly defoliation happening all over our forested landscape, I am sure you are wondering why is this much ado about nothing? The primary reason this is not considered a devastating forest pest is the timing. By mid to late summer, the process of photosynthesis has mostly shut down. As the day lengths begin to get shorter and shorter, the feeding of the leaves for the production of chlorophyll begins to abate and the large amount of nutrients goes to the seeds, such as acorns, and buds that will be next year’s leaves. When a pest comes along in August and begins to eat leaves on a tree, it adds very little stress to the tree since the process of leaf drop has already begun. The second major reason to not fret over your trees being loaded with webs at the moment is that since this is a native species there are built in control mechanisms. Native pests tend to have native predators that have adapted to take advantage of the increase in the prey volume. There are a host of wasps and birds that like to feed on fall webworm. There are reportedly 50 species of parasitoids and 36 predators that call fall webworm their prey. That is a lot of control on a year to year basis.

The best option to control this pest yourself, if you don’t feel like waiting for nature to regulate the problem for you, is to cut the branch off below the web and burn the it. Chemical application is not very effective on web caterpillars since it doesn’t penetrate the web to get on the leaves they are eating.

The 2020 summer has been a unique one to say the least and that includes our vast amount of fall webworm amongst the landscape. While the population is booming, I am confident the built-in control mechanisms will do their job and your trees will come through this scourge unaffected. The fall webworm, while unsightly, is much ado about nothing.

 

Fall webworm

 

Web

ACP Aftermath

by Josh Palumbo, Forest Management Coordinator

I welcome you to The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s attempt to bring some nature and knowledge into your home. The Nine Minute Naturalist borrows from NPR’s lovely 90-Second Naturalist podcast. Since we all have a bit more time on our hands, the goal is to take something that is happening out in our environment and stimulate your brain for roughly nine minutes. Don’t let something as “minor” as a quarantine to keep you from learning. I hope you enjoy!


The idiom “nature abhors a vacuum”, although meant primarily for the world of physics, applies very nicely to the biological world and even more specifically to the Wintergreen ecosystem. Dominion Energy’s initial steps of preparing for the construction of the Atlantic Coast Pipeline (ACP) was to fell a portion of the forest along the pipeline path. The scars on the mountainside, while tragic, are in the process of healing. This week’s Nine Minute Naturalist will discuss the resilience of our forest and how nature is dealing with the ACP aftermath.

The hand felling along the path of the now cancelled (hopefully for good) Atlantic Coast Pipeline created a patch of early successional forest infrequently seen in our mature closed forest environment. The cutting in many ways imitated a natural disaster such as a tornado, derecho or some other blowdown. This man-made disaster was similar in that the trees were put on the ground, not removed and the soil was not disturbed. The lack of soil disturbance is important to the speed and quality of the regeneration. The cut area is currently in the scrub-shrub stage of development. This stage features vegetation dominated by shrubs and trees 1-10 years of age.

Nature is always prepared for the “vacuum” created by natural disasters or in this case, man-made natural disasters. The regeneration of a forest comes by different means. The seed bank is a very important aspect. Different seeds have different triggers to promote germination. Light and moisture are key to most species while some need scarification and others will require a cold overwintering period. Yellow poplar seeds can live in the seed bank for up to 8 years while other species such as ash and black cherry will live up to 3 years in the forest floor. The second way to quickly regenerate a forest is via sprouting. After being cut, many trees will either sprout new stems out of the root collars around the stump or out of their root system. Oaks and maples both put forth vigorous stump sprouts. American beech is best known for their ability to colonize an area via root sprouting.

A recent excursion to the site of the cutting illustrated the ability of the forest to recover quickly. The tree growth in the center of the cutting, where the most sun hits the forest floor, averages 10-20’ in height. On the edges the height ranges from 5-10’. The tree composition is a majority of desirables such as tulip poplar, black locust, black cherry and a variety of oak species. A majority of the trees are growing from seed which tends to yield higher quality specimens than stump sprouts. Some of these seedlings may have grown slowly in the understory and taken advantage of increased sun spurt in growth. A key benefit to the site not having been cleaned up by mechanized equipment is that the preexisting seedlings had a better chance of surviving and getting to the canopy quickly. Another benefit to minimal soil disturbance is the rebounding of the dense mountain laurel stand on the slope heading towards Fortunes Ridge. This dense mountain laurel stand covered the understory prior to being cut for sake of the pipeline. The good news is that the existing root systems are sprouting heavily and show great promise to dominate the understory once again in the near future.

The negative aspect to any forest disturbance is the opening for invasive species to take hold of space in the forest canopy. Throughout the cutting, royal paulownia and tree of heaven are occupying small bits of space. Despite their existence, the native early successional species such as tulip poplar and black locust are holding their own in terms of growth rates.

The ACP aftermath seems to be good news on all fronts. The best news is that the threat of further man-made damage seems to be abated. The forest growth and regeneration appear better than I could have hoped for and will quickly erase the ills done to it such a short time ago.

 

Tree growth

 

Oak seedling

 

Mountain laurel

The Nature Foundation’s summer intern, Carter Stanton, has been awarded the Virginia Native Plant Society grant to study the fringetree.

 

Fringetree is gorgeous when it blooms, and a lovely small tree the rest of the year. However, it is generally considered difficult to propagate; cuttings don’t root easily and seeds take multiple seasons to germinate. Developing more reliable propagation techniques will make it more widely available in native plant landscaping. In addition, it is related to ash, and we don’t know yet how it will be impacted by Emerald Ash Borer. The ability to propagate hardy and resistant trees is potentially very important right now for fringetree. A graduate student of mine, Carter Stanton, will be working at The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen’s propagation greenhouse this summer to test a variety of techniques, and Carter will also be monitoring fringetree in the wild for Emerald Ash Borer damage.

Janet Steven, Associate Professor Department of Organismal & Environmental Biology, Christopher Newport University

 

 

From the Director: Update 7/1/20

 

After consultation with The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen (TNFW) Staff, and medical associates, TNFW has made the decision to not reopen the Trillium House facility the weekend of July 10th as originally planned. Our organization is carefully monitoring the current COVID-19 health crisis, and we will continue to review our abilities to protect our staff, our members, and guests. It is our opinion that to open the Trillium House to the public at this time would be premature.  

We have started our outdoor guided hikes and workshops, however we are limiting the number of participants to allow for social distancing. We are taking the appropriate precautions, including social distancing and face coverings, when required in all programs and activities. Hike participants are being asked to meet our hike leaders at the Trillium House parking lot and drive their own vehicles to the trailheads. We request the hike participants to bring masks with them. Our trail maps can be purchased at the Mountain Inn front desk and at the Blackrock gas station. The map is also available on our website.  

Staff will continue to monitor messages via telephone and email. Our native plant list can be found on our website. Order plants and schedule appointment for pickup at our greenhouse via email to director@tnfw.org.

Also, please check out our website for “The Nine Minute Naturalist” and Peace Out(side) for virtual offerings. Our Facebook and Instagram pages are updated weekly with interesting information and activities.

Doug Coleman
Biologist/Executive Director
The Nature Foundation at Wintergreen